A bruise is a painful injury on the soft body issues that leads to the rapture of blood capillaries and the trickling of red blood cells. Usually, it is a reddish-purple discoloration that does not go pale when pressed. The discoloration amounts to the typical “black and blue” look. A faded bruise is normally green and brown as the human body breaks down the skin bilirubin coloration and the blood cells. At times, a bruise can be linked with a short-term raised region in the skin, normally connected to some kind of inflammation.
What Causes Random Bruising?
Strenuous exercises conducted by athletes and people who weight-lift can cause random bruising. Rigorous exercises lead to microscopic tears in the blood vessels beneath the human skin. When athletes encounter direct impact, a bruise can be attained along with an underlying hematoma.
Bleeding Disorders or Blood-Thinning Medications
Random bruising accompanied by frequent nosebleeds or bleeding of gums can be linked to a bleeding disorder or result from blood-thinning medications. Aspirin and warfarin medications are blood thinners and can prevent the clotting of blood leading to random bruising. Excessive use of natural supplements such as fish oil, garlic and ginkgo biloba can lead to thinning of blood and increase chances of bruising. However, this is not a common occurrence. It happens when these supplements are used along with blood thinning prescriptions.
Lack of vitamin K needed for blood to clot can cause random bruising. Vitamin C is responsible for collagen formation that helps the body to combat with impacts. The lack of vitamin C makes the skin susceptible to bruising. Iron and zinc minerals help in the healing of wounds without which it can be a great cause of continuous bruising. Bioflavonoids are also useful in controlling bruising.
Von Willebrand Disease
Von Willebrand disease is a hereditary bleeding complication that hampers blood clotting. It is a major cause of heavy bleeding following an injury. The absence or malfunctioning of von Willebrand factor protein is the main cause of this disease. Following minor injuries, such a condition is responsible for recurrent big bruises and severe bleeding sessions that cannot be explained otherwise.
Hereditary collagen disorders are also a major cause of random bruising. The Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome causes blood capillaries and other blood vessels around the connective tissues delicate and easy to break. With this condition, there will be delayed healing of wounds, a lot of bruising and arteries’ rapture that can cause internal bleeding and death. Hollow organs like the intestine can also rapture.
Iron Deficiency Anemia
When the human body cannot produce enough healthy red blood cells, random bruising can easily occur. Iron deficiency anemic symptoms include weakness, brittle nails, fatigue, paleness, sore tongue, lightheadedness, random bruising, dark tar-color in stools and fainting easily after standing.
To determine whether iron deficiency anemia is the cause of your symptoms, you can go for a blood test. And the deficiency can be treated with diet and nutrients supplementation.
A diabetic person will most likely suffer from random bruising. With diabetes comes a blurred vision, a lot of appetite and thirst, nausea that can be accompanied by vomiting, constant urination, slow rate of healing for cuts and wounds, recurrent vaginal infections, an itchy skin, particularly in the groin region and fatigue. While all these symptoms are not directly linked to diabetes, a diabetic condition will show them.
When you experience random bruising, it does not necessarily mean that you have leukemia. On the other side, a person diagnosed with leukemia will most likely have constant bruising. A leukemic will show symptoms of frequent infections, fatigue, paleness, painless lumps on the neck, stomach or groin and the underarm as well as pain and plumpness in the ribs. Other complications will be easy bruising such as random bruises on legs, joint and bone pain.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
This health disorder is very common in young women and is commonly linked to Celiac disease. In such a condition, the immune system destroys blood platelets that take care of blood clotting. Now that blood cannot clot well, ITP causes people to get bruises easily and bleed profusely, leading to red bruise patches on legs, arms and the trunk. ITP can also lead to heavy internal bleeds and menstrual flows, nosebleeds, extended fatigue sessions and random bruising.
Thinner skins resulting from extended exposure to the sun can cause random bruising. Another cause is the loss of collagen as people age, making the underlying skin tissues fragile. The UV light can also damage the skin, making it prone to bruises. Low blood platelets during chemotherapy, usually below 400,000 can cause the development of bruises on the body.
What to Do If I Have Random Bruising?
When It Is Not Serious
Bruises that come up following a burn, a cut, an injury or a fall can be treated normally. These are common and a knot will certainly develop in the bruised area. The bruises are part of the conventional body healing process. Such can be treated by:
Raising the bruised region above your heart to enhance blood flow from the bruised tissue, if possible.
Using an ice pack wrapped in a cloth to control swelling. This should be left for about 15 minutes for each hour.
Resting the bruised area.
When It Gets Worse
On the other hand, a wound that bruised and then reopened, producing pus, blood or a clear liquid should be taken to a physician for further medication. Additional pressure on the bruised area is an indication of further infection. This could be a result of “compartment syndrome” which is a life-threatening condition. Consult your doctor on the following occasions:
When you have a swelled bruise accompanied with severe pain, particularly if you were under a blood-thinning medication.
When you have frequent unexplained bruising.
When you have a painful bruise under your fingernail or toenail.
When a bruise fails to improve and fails to clear within 2-4 weeks.
When you suspect having a bruise and a broken bone.